'Library'에 해당되는 글 1건

  1. 2009.01.12 Unicode / 코드 변환기 / C++ 에서 유니코드 프로그래밍


유니 코드 (UTF-8 or UTF-16LE) 를 local (아스키 또는 각자의 codepage) 로 변환시키는 문제는 유니코드 지원 프로그래밍을 위해서는 매우 복잡한 문제이다.

먼저 보통 말하는 local codepage 랑 아스키랑 같은 것이라는 것을 알자. 나는 처음에 이게 차이가 있을 까봐 정말 머리가 아팠다.

결국...

UTF8 <-> UTF16LE
UTF16LE <-> UTF8
UTF8 <-> local
UTF16LE <-> local

이렇게 4 가지 조합만 바꿀 수 있으면 unicode 를 완벽하게 지원하는 프로그램을 짤 수 있다.

c++ 에서 사용할 수 있는 locale 을 바꿔 주는 library 가 몇가지 있는데...

1) iconv
2) boost
3) qt 의 qstring
4) 그리고 피부미인의 codechanger ㅋㅋㅋ

1 번은 가장 많이 쓰는데 static 으로 compile 할라면 머리아프다. 나는 DLL 을 정말 싫어한다.
2 번은 사람들이 잘 모르는데 boost 안에 일부 function 이 unicode 프로그래밍의 중요한 clue 를 제공한다. 여기서 개발된 것이 4 번의 피부미인의 codechanger 이다.
3 번 qt 는 일단 install 할라면 너무 머리아프다. build 하다가 다른 library 랑 부딛치면 돌아버린다.

4 번 피부미인의 codechanger 는 내가 medicalphoto 라는 프로젝트를 하면서 정말정말 어렵게 만든겁니다.  여기에만 특별히 공개하겠습니다. ^^g 이걸 쓰려면 boost library 를 설치해야합니다. 아니면 utf8-codecvt_facet.hpp 에 있는 boost/config.hpp 나 boost/detail/workaround.hpp 등만 copy 해서 사용해도 됩니다.


사용법은 아래와 같다.

MCodeChanger::_CCL("unicode letters") = "local code letters"
MCodeChanger::_CCU("local code letters") = "unicode letters"



1. codechanger.h

////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
// Copyright : Han Seung Seog
// It was so damn hard to make this library
// http://prettygom.com
// http://sshan.net
// 2008. 8. 1
////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

#pragma once

#include "../boost.h"
#include <string>
#include <boost/format.hpp>
#include "tchar.h"
#include "utf8_codecvt_facet.hpp"
#include "unicode.h"

#ifdef _UNICODE
    #define _CCL U_W
    #define _CCU W_U
    #define _CCW mbs_to_wcs
    #define _CCN wcs_to_mbs
#else
    #define _CCL U_L
    #define _CCU L_U
    #define _CCW LocaltoLocal
    #define _CCN LocaltoLocal
#endif // _UNICODE

class MCodeChanger
{
public:
    static tstring LocaltoLocal(const tstring& str)
    {
        return str;
    }

    static std::string L_U(const std::string& str)
    {
        std::locale local(std::locale(""),new utf8_codecvt_facet);
        return wcs_to_mbs(mbs_to_wcs(str),local);
    }
    static std::string U_L(const std::string& str)
    {
        std::locale local(std::locale(""),new utf8_codecvt_facet);
        return wcs_to_mbs(mbs_to_wcs(str,local));
    }
    static std::string W_U(const std::wstring& str)
    {
        std::locale local(std::locale(""),new utf8_codecvt_facet);
        return wcs_to_mbs(str,local);
    }
    static std::wstring U_W(const std::string& str)
    {
        std::locale local(std::locale(""),new utf8_codecvt_facet);
        return mbs_to_wcs(str,local);
    }

static std::wstring
mbs_to_wcs(std::string const& str, std::locale const& loc = std::locale(""))
{
    typedef std::codecvt<wchar_t, char, std::mbstate_t> codecvt_t;
    codecvt_t const& codecvt = std::use_facet<codecvt_t>(loc);
    std::mbstate_t state = 0;
    std::vector<wchar_t> buf(str.size() + 1);
    char const* in_next = str.c_str();
    wchar_t* out_next = &buf[0];
    codecvt_t::result r = codecvt.in(state,
        str.c_str(), str.c_str() + str.size(), in_next,
        &buf[0], &buf[0] + buf.size(), out_next);
    return std::wstring(&buf[0]);
}
 
static std::string
wcs_to_mbs(std::wstring const& str, std::locale const& loc = std::locale(""))
{
    typedef std::codecvt<wchar_t, char, std::mbstate_t> codecvt_t;
    codecvt_t const& codecvt = std::use_facet<codecvt_t>(loc);
    std::mbstate_t state = 0;
    std::vector<char> buf((str.size() + 1) * codecvt.max_length());
    wchar_t const* in_next = str.c_str();
    char* out_next = &buf[0];
    codecvt_t::result r = codecvt.out(state,
        str.c_str(), str.c_str() + str.size(), in_next,
        &buf[0], &buf[0] + buf.size(), out_next);
    return std::string(&buf[0]);
}
};

2. [ utf8_codesvt_facet.hpp ]

// Copyright ?2001 Ronald Garcia, Indiana University (garcia@osl.iu.edu)
// Andrew Lumsdaine, Indiana University (lums@osl.iu.edu).
// Distributed under the Boost Software License, Version 1.0. (See accompany-
// ing file LICENSE_1_0.txt or copy at http://www.boost.org/LICENSE_1_0.txt)

#pragma once

// MS compatible compilers support #pragma once
#if defined(_MSC_VER) && (_MSC_VER >= 1020)
# pragma once
#endif

/////////1/////////2/////////3/////////4/////////5/////////6/////////7/////////8
// utf8_codecvt_facet.hpp

// This header defines class utf8_codecvt_facet, derived fro
// std::codecvt<wchar_t, char>, which can be used to convert utf8 data in
// files into wchar_t strings in the application.
//
// The header is NOT STANDALONE, and is not to be included by the USER.
// There are at least two libraries which want to use this functionality, and
// we want to avoid code duplication. It would be possible to create utf8
// library, but:
// - this requires review process first
// - in the case, when linking the a library which uses utf8
//   (say 'program_options'), user should also link to the utf8 library.
//   This seems inconvenient, and asking a user to link to an unrevieved
//   library is strange.
// Until the above points are fixed, a library which wants to use utf8 must:
// - include this header from one of it's headers or sources
// - include the corresponding .cpp file from one of the sources
// - before including either file, the library must define
//   - BOOST_UTF8_BEGIN_NAMESPACE to the namespace declaration that must be used
//   - BOOST_UTF8_END_NAMESPACE to the code to close the previous namespace
//   - declaration.
//   -  -- to the code which must be used for all 'exportable'
//     symbols.
//
// For example, program_options library might contain:
//    #define BOOST_UTF8_BEGIN_NAMESPACE <backslash character>
//             namespace boost { namespace program_options {
//    #define BOOST_UTF8_END_NAMESPACE }}
//    #define  BOOST_PROGRAM_OPTIONS_DECL
//    #include "../../detail/utf8/utf8_codecvt.cpp"
//
// Essentially, each library will have its own copy of utf8 code, in
// different namespaces.

// Note:(Robert Ramey).  I have made the following alterations in the original
// code.
// a) Rendered utf8_codecvt<wchar_t, char>  with using templates
// b) Move longer functions outside class definition to prevent inlining
// and make code smaller
// c) added on a derived class to permit translation to/from current
// locale to utf8

//  See http://www.boost.org for updates, documentation, and revision history.

// archives stored as text - note these ar templated on the basic
// stream templates to accommodate wide (and other?) kind of characters
//
// note the fact that on libraries without wide characters, ostream is
// is not a specialization of basic_ostream which in fact is not defined
// in such cases.   So we can't use basic_ostream<OStream::char_type> but rather
// use two template parameters
//
// utf8_codecvt_facet
//   This is an implementation of a std::codecvt facet for translating
//   from UTF-8 externally to UCS-4.  Note that this is not tied to
//   any specific types in order to allow customization on platforms
//   where wchar_t is not big enough.
//
// NOTES:  The current implementation jumps through some unpleasant hoops in
// order to deal with signed character types.  As a std::codecvt_base::result,
// it is necessary  for the ExternType to be convertible to unsigned  char.
// I chose not to tie the extern_type explicitly to char. But if any combination
// of types other than <wchar_t,char_t> is used, then std::codecvt must be
// specialized on those types for this to work.

#include <locale>
// for mbstate_t
#include <wchar.h>
// for std::size_t
#include <cstddef>

#include <boost/config.hpp>
#include <boost/detail/workaround.hpp>

namespace std {
    #if defined(__LIBCOMO__)
        using ::mbstate_t;
    #elif defined(BOOST_DINKUMWARE_STDLIB) && !defined(__BORLANDC__)
        using ::mbstate_t;
    #elif defined(__SGI_STL_PORT)
    #elif defined(BOOST_NO_STDC_NAMESPACE)
        using ::mbstate_t;
        using ::codecvt;
    #endif
} // namespace std

#if !defined(__MSL_CPP__) && !defined(__LIBCOMO__)
    #define BOOST_CODECVT_DO_LENGTH_CONST const
#else
    #define BOOST_CODECVT_DO_LENGTH_CONST
#endif

// maximum lenght of a multibyte string
#define MB_LENGTH_MAX 8

struct  utf8_codecvt_facet :
    public std::codecvt<wchar_t, char, std::mbstate_t> 
{
public:
    explicit utf8_codecvt_facet(std::size_t no_locale_manage=0)
        : std::codecvt<wchar_t, char, std::mbstate_t>(no_locale_manage)
    {}
protected:
    virtual std::codecvt_base::result do_in(
        std::mbstate_t& state,
        const char * from,
        const char * from_end,
        const char * & from_next,
        wchar_t * to,
        wchar_t * to_end,
        wchar_t*& to_next
    ) const;

    virtual std::codecvt_base::result do_out(
        std::mbstate_t & state, const wchar_t * from,
        const wchar_t * from_end, const wchar_t*  & from_next,
        char * to, char * to_end, char * & to_next
    ) const;

    bool invalid_continuing_octet(unsigned char octet_1) const {
        return (octet_1 < 0x80|| 0xbf< octet_1);
    }

    bool invalid_leading_octet(unsigned char octet_1)   const {
        return (0x7f < octet_1 && octet_1 < 0xc0) ||
            (octet_1 > 0xfd);
    }

    // continuing octets = octets except for the leading octet
    static unsigned int get_cont_octet_count(unsigned   char lead_octet) {
        return get_octet_count(lead_octet) - 1;
    }

    static unsigned int get_octet_count(unsigned char   lead_octet);

    // How many "continuing octets" will be needed for this word
    // ==   total octets - 1.
    int get_cont_octet_out_count(wchar_t word) const ;

    virtual bool do_always_noconv() const throw() { return false; }

    // UTF-8 isn't really stateful since we rewind on partial conversions
    virtual std::codecvt_base::result do_unshift(
        std::mbstate_t&,
        char * from,
        char * /*to*/,
        char * & next
    ) const
    {
        next = from;
        return ok;
    }

    virtual int do_encoding() const throw() {
        const int variable_byte_external_encoding=0;
        return variable_byte_external_encoding;
    }

    // How many char objects can I process to get <= max_limit
    // wchar_t objects?
    virtual int do_length(
        BOOST_CODECVT_DO_LENGTH_CONST std::mbstate_t &,
        const char * from,
        const char * from_end,
        std::size_t max_limit
#if BOOST_WORKAROUND(__IBMCPP__, BOOST_TESTED_AT(600))
        ) const throw();
#else
        ) const;
#endif

    // Largest possible value do_length(state,from,from_end,1) could return.
    virtual int do_max_length() const throw () {
        return 6; // largest UTF-8 encoding of a UCS-4 character
    }
};


3. [utf8_codecvt_facet.cpp]

/////////1/////////2/////////3/////////4/////////5/////////6/////////7/////////8
// utf8_codecvt_facet.cpp

// Copyright ?2001 Ronald Garcia, Indiana University (garcia@osl.iu.edu)
// Andrew Lumsdaine, Indiana University (lums@osl.iu.edu).
// Use, modification and distribution is subject to the Boost Software
// License, Version 1.0. (See accompanying file LICENSE_1_0.txt or copy at
// http://www.boost.org/LICENSE_1_0.txt)

// Please see the comments in <boost/detail/utf8_codecvt_facet.hpp> to
// learn how this file should be used.
#include "stdafx.h"
#include "utf8_codecvt_facet.hpp"

#include <cstdlib> // for multi-byte converson routines
#include <cassert>

#include <boost/limits.hpp>
#include <boost/config.hpp>

// If we don't have wstring, then Unicode support
// is not available anyway, so we don't need to even
// compiler this file. This also fixes the problem
// with mingw, which can compile this file, but will
// generate link error when building DLL.
#ifndef BOOST_NO_STD_WSTRING

/////////1/////////2/////////3/////////4/////////5/////////6/////////7/////////8
// implementation for wchar_t

// Translate incoming UTF-8 into UCS-4
std::codecvt_base::result utf8_codecvt_facet::do_in(
    std::mbstate_t& /*state*/,
    const char * from,
    const char * from_end,
    const char * & from_next,
    wchar_t * to,
    wchar_t * to_end,
    wchar_t * & to_next
) const {
    // Basic algorithm:  The first octet determines how many
    // octets total make up the UCS-4 character.  The remaining
    // "continuing octets" all begin with "10". To convert, subtract
    // the amount that specifies the number of octets from the first
    // octet.  Subtract 0x80 (1000 0000) from each continuing octet,
    // then mash the whole lot together.  Note that each continuing
    // octet only uses 6 bits as unique values, so only shift by
    // multiples of 6 to combine.
    while (from != from_end && to != to_end) {

        // Error checking   on the first octet
        if (invalid_leading_octet(*from)){
            from_next = from;
            to_next = to;
            return std::codecvt_base::error;
        }

        // The first octet is   adjusted by a value dependent upon
        // the number   of "continuing octets" encoding the character
        const   int cont_octet_count = get_cont_octet_count(*from);
        const   wchar_t octet1_modifier_table[] =   {
            0x00, 0xc0, 0xe0, 0xf0, 0xf8, 0xfc
        };

        // The unsigned char conversion is necessary in case char is
        // signed   (I learned this the hard way)
        wchar_t ucs_result =
            (unsigned char)(*from++) - octet1_modifier_table[cont_octet_count];

        // Invariants   :
        //   1) At the start of the loop,   'i' continuing characters have been
        //    processed
        //   2) *from   points to the next continuing character to be processed.
        int i   = 0;
        while(i != cont_octet_count && from != from_end) {

            // Error checking on continuing characters
            if (invalid_continuing_octet(*from)) {
                from_next   = from;
                to_next =   to;
                return std::codecvt_base::error;
            }

            ucs_result *= (1 << 6);

            // each continuing character has an extra (10xxxxxx)b attached to
            // it that must be removed.
            ucs_result += (unsigned char)(*from++) - 0x80;
            ++i;
        }

        // If   the buffer ends with an incomplete unicode character...
        if (from == from_end && i   != cont_octet_count) {
            // rewind "from" to before the current character translation
            from_next = from - (i+1);
            to_next = to;
            return std::codecvt_base::partial;
        }
        *to++   = ucs_result;
    }
    from_next = from;
    to_next = to;

    // Were we done converting or did we run out of destination space?
    if(from == from_end) return std::codecvt_base::ok;
    else return std::codecvt_base::partial;
}

std::codecvt_base::result utf8_codecvt_facet::do_out(
    std::mbstate_t& /*state*/,
    const wchar_t *   from,
    const wchar_t * from_end,
    const wchar_t * & from_next,
    char * to,
    char * to_end,
    char * & to_next
) const
{
    // RG - consider merging this table with the other one
    const wchar_t octet1_modifier_table[] = {
        0x00, 0xc0, 0xe0, 0xf0, 0xf8, 0xfc
    };

    wchar_t max_wchar = (std::numeric_limits<wchar_t>::max)();
    while (from != from_end && to != to_end) {

        // Check for invalid UCS-4 character
        if (*from  > max_wchar) {
            from_next = from;
            to_next = to;
            return std::codecvt_base::error;
        }

        int cont_octet_count = get_cont_octet_out_count(*from);

        // RG  - comment this formula better
        int shift_exponent = (cont_octet_count) *   6;

        // Process the first character
        *to++ = static_cast<char>(octet1_modifier_table[cont_octet_count] +
            (unsigned char)(*from / (1 << shift_exponent)));

        // Process the continuation characters
        // Invariants: At   the start of the loop:
        //   1) 'i' continuing octets   have been generated
        //   2) '*to'   points to the next location to place an octet
        //   3) shift_exponent is   6 more than needed for the next octet
        int i   = 0;
        while   (i != cont_octet_count && to != to_end) {
            shift_exponent -= 6;
            *to++ = static_cast<char>(0x80 + ((*from / (1 << shift_exponent)) % (1 << 6)));
            ++i;
        }
        // If   we filled up the out buffer before encoding the character
        if(to   == to_end && i != cont_octet_count) {
            from_next = from;
            to_next = to - (i+1);
            return std::codecvt_base::partial;
        }
        *from++;
    }
    from_next = from;
    to_next = to;
    // Were we done or did we run out of destination space
    if(from == from_end) return std::codecvt_base::ok;
    else return std::codecvt_base::partial;
}

// How many char objects can I process to get <= max_limit
// wchar_t objects?
int utf8_codecvt_facet::do_length(
    BOOST_CODECVT_DO_LENGTH_CONST std::mbstate_t &,
    const char * from,
    const char * from_end,
    std::size_t max_limit
#if BOOST_WORKAROUND(__IBMCPP__, BOOST_TESTED_AT(600))
) const throw()
#else
) const
#endif
{
    // RG - this code is confusing!  I need a better way to express it.
    // and test cases.

    // Invariants:
    // 1) last_octet_count has the size of the last measured character
    // 2) char_count holds the number of characters shown to fit
    // within the bounds so far (no greater than max_limit)
    // 3) from_next points to the octet 'last_octet_count' before the
    // last measured character. 
    int last_octet_count=0;
    std::size_t char_count = 0;
    const char* from_next = from;
    // Use "<" because the buffer may represent incomplete characters
    while (from_next+last_octet_count <= from_end && char_count <= max_limit) {
        from_next += last_octet_count;
        last_octet_count = (get_octet_count(*from_next));
        ++char_count;
    }
    return static_cast<int>(from_next-from_end);
}

unsigned int utf8_codecvt_facet::get_octet_count(
    unsigned char   lead_octet
){
    // if the 0-bit (MSB) is 0, then 1 character
    if (lead_octet <= 0x7f) return 1;

    // Otherwise the count number of consecutive 1 bits starting at MSB
//    assert(0xc0 <= lead_octet && lead_octet <= 0xfd);

    if (0xc0 <= lead_octet && lead_octet <= 0xdf) return 2;
    else if (0xe0 <= lead_octet && lead_octet <= 0xef) return 3;
    else if (0xf0 <= lead_octet && lead_octet <= 0xf7) return 4;
    else if (0xf8 <= lead_octet && lead_octet <= 0xfb) return 5;
    else return 6;
}

namespace {
template<std::size_t s>
int get_cont_octet_out_count_impl(wchar_t word){
    if (word < 0x80) {
        return 0;
    }
    if (word < 0x800) {
        return 1;
    }
    return 2;
}

// note the following code will generate on some platforms where
// wchar_t is defined as UCS2.  The warnings are superfluous as
// the specialization is never instantitiated with such compilers.
template<>
int get_cont_octet_out_count_impl<4>(wchar_t word){
    if (word < 0x80) {
        return 0;
    }
    if (word < 0x800) {
        return 1;
    }
    if (word < 0x10000) {
        return 2;
    }
    if (word < 0x200000) {
        return 3;
    }
    if (word < 0x4000000) {
        return 4;
    }
    return 5;
}

} // namespace anonymous

// How many "continuing octets" will be needed for this word
// ==   total octets - 1.
int utf8_codecvt_facet::get_cont_octet_out_count(
    wchar_t word
) const {
    return get_cont_octet_out_count_impl<sizeof(wchar_t)>(word);
}


#endif



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